# # Go Basics

This section introduces basic types and string formatting. After that, you will dive into functions and methods in Golang.

## # Numbers

Integer types are:

**int**will be 32 or 64 bits long depending on the OS. However, one can specify precisely how many bits are used with 8, 16, 32, and 64.**uint**defines the unsigned integers, which are simply positive integers.

There are two aliases:

**byte**for**uint8****run**for**int32****uintptr**is an integer "to hold the bit pattern of any pointer" (opens new window).

The types for floating-point arithmetic are `float32`

and `float64`

. These are only an *approximation* for real numbers because of the finite precision (opens new window).

`complex64`

and `complex128`

represent complex numbers. These are useful in geospatial coordinate systems and scientific applications, among others. They have "real" and "imaginary" parts that are always `floats`

. When the real and imaginary parts are `float32`

, the complex number is a `complex64`

. Likewise, when the real and imaginary parts are `float64`

, the complex number is a `complex128`

.

## # Strings

In Go, a `string`

is a read-only sequence of bytes. Therefore strings are immutable. They're encoded in UTF8 by default.

## # Booleans

A `bool`

is a special 1-bit integer. It can represent `true`

or `false`

.

## # Type declaration

In Go, the name comes before the type in the declaration. There are two ways to initialize a variable in Go.

First:

Second:

You can also use **var** to define variables without initialization:

This is equivalent to:

Without initialization, variables have so-called *zero values* which depend on their type.

To define constants, you must use the `const`

keyword instead of `var`

or `:=`

keywords.

Constants can be *typed* or *untyped*. For example, an untyped constant:

The untyped constant means that the type of `hello`

is not defined yet.

Because of static types in Go, you have more freedom with untyped constants than with typed ones. Compare the following two examples:

This first example **works**: the "number" constant is untyped, so the variable "f" can accept it (despite itself being typed `float64`

).

This second example **does not work**: the "number" constant and the variable "f" are differently typed (`int`

and `float64`

respectively).

## # String formatting

`fmt.Printf`

writes to standard output and returns the number of bytes written and the write error. The string formatting is:

Here is an example code:

Compile this to see the output.

## # Functions

Functions can take zero or more arguments and can return zero or more arguments. The syntax looks like the following:

If return variable names are given in the declaration, you do not need to explicitly return them.

For example, consider a swap function that switches the values of `x`

and `y`

:

You could also write:

Go also offers function closures:

Let's walk through `func fibonacci()`

in more detail:

- Go supports
*anonymous functions*, which you return. - You declare
`x`

and`y`

inside`fibonacci()`

, and use them inside the*anonymous function*.

`x, y = y, x + y`

works because the right side is evaluated fully before the left side.

Now write less idiomatic code to highlight some more aspects:

This will print the first 10 Fibonacci numbers.

Important here is that `fibonacci()`

returns a function, and this function is passed into `loop()`

as `f`

. On subsequent iterations, `loop(n-1,f)`

passes this anonymous function into itself recursively.

Here you used the control statement `if`

for the first time, to break out of the recursion. Each `fibonacci()`

, stored as `f`

in `loop`

, has its own `x`

and `y`

- this is called a **closure**. So, what happens if you split the loop into 2?

This will give the first 5 Fibonacci numbers twice.

To get the first 10, try the following:

Do you see why that works?

## # Methods

Methods are defined on types. Go does not have classes. First, define a structure type:

You can use this structure for a variable declaration:

You also have access to members through the `.`

operator:

Now you can declare a method on it:

Methods are functions, but they have a so-called *receiver* argument (in the previous example `r Rectangle`

). You can use such a method with the `.`

operator:

Do you see how `Area()`

became a method of `Rectangle`

?

You can declare a method with a receiver only in the same package as the type is defined.

The following example is not declared on a `struct`

type:

Do you see how `Abs()`

became a method of the new type, `MyNumber`

?

## # Pointer

A function argument is copied into the function. If you want to change the argument, you will require pointers. Pointers are addresses of variables. Look at an example:

The following function will not change `i`

:

Instead, try it this way:

The previous attempt will get the same result (`0`

) twice. Nothing happened to `i`

.

Now see what happens if you include a pointer:

Now you see that the value of `i`

changes. What happened is as follows:

`&i`

gives the address with type`*int`

, which is a pointer and expected by the function`func increase(i *int)`

.`*i`

is the value the pointer points to.

You can also use pointers in methods to modify the receiver:

`r.b`

is the same as `(*r).b`

in this context, but it is easier to read.

Pointers are important.

This video provides a simple demonstration of functional programming in Golang, to clarify how functions interact to produce particular results.

To summarize, this section has explored:

- The basic
**types**(including numbers, strings, booleans, and type declarations),**string formatting**,**functions**, and**methods**employed in Golang. - Where to access online tests to practice implementing some simple coding examples for yourself.