# Migration - Introduce a Leaderboard After Production

Make sure you have all you need before proceeding:

In this section, you will:

  • Add a leaderboard.
  • Upgrade your blockchain in production.
  • Deal with data migrations and logic upgrades.

If you have been running v1 of your checkers blockchain for a while, games have been created, played on, won, and lost. In this section you will introduce v2 of your blockchain with leaderboard support. A good leaderboard fulfills these conditions:

  • Any player who has ever played should have a tally of games won, lost, and forfeited.
  • The leaderboard should list the players with the most wins up to a pre-determined number. For example, the leaderboard could only include the top 100 scores.
  • To avoid squatting and increase engagement, when equal in value the most recent score takes precedence over an older one, so the player with the recent score is listed higher on the leaderboard.

When you introduce the leaderboard, you also have to decide what to do with your existing players and their scores from your v1 checkers blockchain.

Start your v2's leaderboard as if all played past games had been counted for the leaderboard. You only need to go through all played games, update the players with their tallies, and add a leaderboard including the information. This is possible because all past games and their outcomes are kept in the chain's state. Migration is a good method to tackle the initial leaderboard.

# Introducing a leaderboard

Several things need to be addressed before you can focus all your attention on the migration:

  1. Save and mark as v1 the current data types about to be modified with the new version. Data types which will remain unmodified need not be identified as such.
  2. Prepare your v2 blockchain:
    1. Define your new data types.
    2. Add helper functions to encapsulate clearly defined actions, like leaderboard sorting.
    3. Adjust the existing code to make use of and update the new data types.
  3. Prepare for your v1-to-v2 migration:
    1. Add helper functions to take large amounts of data from the latest chain state under the shape of a v1 genesis.
    2. Add a function to migrate from v1 to v2 genesis.
    3. Make sure you can handle large amounts of data.

Why do you need to make sure you can handle large amounts of data? The full state at the point of migration will be passed in the form of a gigantic v1 genesis when your migration function is called. You do not want your process to grind to a halt because of a lack of memory.

# Save your v1

Your migration steps will be handled in a new folder, x/checkers/migrations/v1tov2, which needs to be created:

Copy $ mkdir -p x/checkers/migrations/v1tov2

The only data structure you will eventually change is the genesis structure. The other data structures are new, so you can treat them as usual. Copy and paste your v1 genesis from the current commit and save it under another name in v1tov2/types.go:

Copy type GenesisStateV1 struct { StoredGameList []*types.StoredGame `protobuf:"bytes,2,rep,name=storedGameList,proto3" json:"storedGameList,omitempty"` NextGame *types.NextGame `protobuf:"bytes,1,opt,name=nextGame,proto3" json:"nextGame,omitempty"` } x checkers ... v1tov2 types.go View source

Your current genesis definition becomes your v2 genesis. This should be the only data structure requiring a change. However, if for example you also changed the structure of StoredGame, then you would have to save its v1 version in the same types.go file.

# New v2 information

It is time to take a closer look at the new data structures being introduced with the version upgrade.

If you feel unsure about creating new data structures with Ignite CLI, look at the previous sections of the exercise again.

To give the new v2 information a data structure, you need the following:

  1. Add a set of stats per player: it makes sense to save one struct for each player and map it by address. Remember that a game is stored at StoredGame-value-123, where StoredGame-value- is a constant prefix. In a similar fashion, Ignite CLI creates a new constant to use as the prefix for players:

    Copy $ ignite scaffold map playerInfo wonCount:uint lostCount:uint forfeitedCount:uint --module checkers --no-message

    The new PlayerInfo-value- prefix for players helps differentiate between the value for players and the value for games prefixed with StoredGame-value-. Now you can safely have both StoredGame-value-123 and PlayerInfo-value-123 side by side in storage.

    This creates a Protobuf file:

    Copy message PlayerInfo { string index = 1; uint64 wonCount = 2; uint64 lostCount = 3; uint64 forfeitedCount = 4; } proto checkers player_info.proto View source

    Remove creator from the Protobuf file because it serves no purpose. Remember to add the new object to the genesis, effectively your v2 genesis:

    Copy import "checkers/player_info.proto"; message GenesisState { ... repeated PlayerInfo playerInfoList = 3; } proto checkers genesis.proto View source
  2. Add a leaderboard rung structure to be repeated inside the leaderboard: this stores the information of a player scoring high enough to be included in the leaderboard. It is not meant to be kept directly in storage as it is only a part of the leaderboard. Instead of involving Ignite CLI, create the structure by hand in its own file:

    Copy message WinningPlayer { string playerAddress = 1; uint64 wonCount = 2; string dateAdded = 3; } proto checkers winning_player.proto View source
    • playerAddress indicates the player, and gives information regarding PlayerInfo.index.
    • wonCount determines the ranking on the leaderboard - the higher the count, the closer to the 0 index in the array. This should exactly match the value found in the corresponding player stats. This duplication of data is a lesser evil, because if wonCount was missing you would have to access the player stats to sort the leaderboard.
    • dateAdded indicates when the player's wonCount was last updated and determines the ranking when there is a tie in wonCount - the more recent, the closer to the 0 slot in the array.
  3. Add a structure for the leaderboard: there is a single stored leaderboard for the whole application. Let Ignite CLI help you implement a structure:

    Copy $ ignite scaffold single leaderboard winners --module checkers --no-message

    This creates a Protobuf file that you update with your preferred type and its import. Again, remove the creator:

    Copy import "checkers/winning_player.proto"; message Leaderboard { repeated WinningPlayer winners = 1; } proto checkers leaderboard.proto View source

    Now update the v2 genesis file by adding the leaderboard:

    Copy import "checkers/leaderboard.proto"; message GenesisState { ... Leaderboard leaderboard = 4; } proto checkers genesis.proto View source

    Remember to make sure the initial value stored for the leaderboard is not nil but instead is empty. In genesis.go adjust:

    Copy func DefaultGenesis() *GenesisState { return &GenesisState{ ... Leaderboard: &Leaderboard{ Winners: []*WinningPlayer{}, }, } } x checkers types genesis.go View source

    This function returns a default genesis. This step is important if you start fresh. In your case, you do not begin with an "empty" genesis but with one resulting from the upcoming genesis migration in this exercise.

With the structure set up it is time to add the code using these new elements in normal operations.

# v2 player information helpers

When a game reaches its resolution, one of the counts needs to add +1.

To start, add a private helper function that gets the stats from the storage, updates the numbers as instructed, and saves it back:

Copy func mustAddDeltaGameResultToPlayer( k *Keeper, ctx sdk.Context, player sdk.AccAddress, wonDelta uint64, lostDelta uint64, forfeitedDelta uint64, ) (playerInfo types.PlayerInfo) { playerInfo, found := k.GetPlayerInfo(ctx, player.String()) if !found { playerInfo = types.PlayerInfo{ Index: player.String(), WonCount: 0, LostCount: 0, ForfeitedCount: 0, } } playerInfo.WonCount += wonDelta playerInfo.LostCount += lostDelta playerInfo.ForfeitedCount += forfeitedDelta k.SetPlayerInfo(ctx, playerInfo) return playerInfo } x checkers keeper player_info_handler.go View source

You can easily call this from these public one-liner functions added to the keeper:

Copy func (k *Keeper) MustAddWonGameResultToPlayer(ctx sdk.Context, player sdk.AccAddress) types.PlayerInfo { return mustAddDeltaGameResultToPlayer(k, ctx, player, 1, 0, 0) } func (k *Keeper) MustAddLostGameResultToPlayer(ctx sdk.Context, player sdk.AccAddress) types.PlayerInfo { return mustAddDeltaGameResultToPlayer(k, ctx, player, 0, 1, 0) } func (k *Keeper) MustAddForfeitedGameResultToPlayer(ctx sdk.Context, player sdk.AccAddress) types.PlayerInfo { return mustAddDeltaGameResultToPlayer(k, ctx, player, 0, 0, 1) } x checkers keeper player_info_handler.go View source

Which player should get +1, and on what count? You need to identify the loser and the winner of a game to determine this. Create another private helper:

Copy func getWinnerAndLoserAddresses(storedGame *types.StoredGame) (winnerAddress sdk.AccAddress, loserAddress sdk.AccAddress) { if storedGame.Winner == rules.NO_PLAYER.Color { panic(types.ErrThereIsNoWinner.Error()) } redAddress, err := storedGame.GetRedAddress() if err != nil { panic(err.Error()) } blackAddress, err := storedGame.GetBlackAddress() if err != nil { panic(err.Error()) } if storedGame.Winner == rules.RED_PLAYER.Color { winnerAddress = redAddress loserAddress = blackAddress } else if storedGame.Winner == rules.BLACK_PLAYER.Color { winnerAddress = blackAddress loserAddress = redAddress } else { panic(fmt.Sprintf(types.ErrWinnerNotParseable.Error(), storedGame.Winner)) } return winnerAddress, loserAddress } x checkers keeper player_info_handler.go View source

You can call this from these public helper functions added to the keeper:

Copy func (k *Keeper) MustRegisterPlayerWin(ctx sdk.Context, storedGame *types.StoredGame) (winnerInfo types.PlayerInfo, loserInfo types.PlayerInfo) { winnerAddress, loserAddress := getWinnerAndLoserAddresses(storedGame) return k.MustAddWonGameResultToPlayer(ctx, winnerAddress), k.MustAddLostGameResultToPlayer(ctx, loserAddress) } func (k *Keeper) MustRegisterPlayerForfeit(ctx sdk.Context, storedGame *types.StoredGame) (winnerInfo types.PlayerInfo, forfeiterInfo types.PlayerInfo) { winnerAddress, loserAddress := getWinnerAndLoserAddresses(storedGame) return k.MustAddWonGameResultToPlayer(ctx, winnerAddress), k.MustAddForfeitedGameResultToPlayer(ctx, loserAddress) } x checkers keeper player_info_handler.go View source

# v2 player information handling

Now call your helper functions:

  1. On a win:

    Copy ... if storedGame.Winner == rules.NO_PLAYER.Color { ... } else { ... k.Keeper.MustPayWinnings(ctx, &storedGame) k.Keeper.MustRegisterPlayerWin(ctx, &storedGame) } ... x checkers keeper msg_server_play_move.go View source
  2. On a forfeit:

    Copy ... if storedGame.MoveCount <= 1 { ... } else { k.MustPayWinnings(ctx, &storedGame) k.MustRegisterPlayerForfeit(ctx, &storedGame) } ... x checkers keeper end_block_server_game.go View source

# v2 leaderboard helpers

Continue completing your v2 before tackling the migration. Your leaderboard helpers should:

  1. Add a new candidate to your array.
  2. Sort the array according to the rules.
  3. Clip the array to a length of 100 and save the result.

Sorting entails comparing dates in cases of a score tie. This is potentially expensive if you are deserializing the date in the comparator itself. Instead, the comparator should be presented with data already deserialized. Prepare a data structure that has already deserialized the dateAdded, which allows you to:

  1. Deserialize all the elements of the whole leaderboard's array.
  2. Sort its elements.
  3. Only then reserialize its elements.

You do not need to use this deserialized element type anywhere else, therefore you should keep it private. Create a new file full_leaderboard.go to encapsulate all your leaderboard helpers:

Copy type winningPlayerParsed struct { PlayerAddress string WonCount uint64 DateAdded time.Time } x checkers types full_leaderboard.go View source

You can reuse the date format used for the deadline:

Copy const ( DateAddedLayout = DeadlineLayout ) x checkers types keys.go View source

Add similar functions to it, as you did when adding a deadline:

Copy func (winningPlayer *WinningPlayer) GetDateAddedAsTime() (dateAdded time.Time, err error) { dateAdded, errDateAdded := time.Parse(DateAddedLayout, winningPlayer.DateAdded) return dateAdded, sdkerrors.Wrapf(errDateAdded, ErrInvalidDateAdded.Error(), winningPlayer.DateAdded) } func GetDateAdded(ctx sdk.Context) time.Time { return ctx.BlockTime() } func FormatDateAdded(dateAdded time.Time) string { return dateAdded.UTC().Format(DateAddedLayout) } x checkers types full_leaderboard.go View source

Create the methods:

Copy func (winningPlayer *WinningPlayer) parse() (parsed *winningPlayerParsed, err error) { dateAdded, err := winningPlayer.GetDateAddedAsTime() if err != nil { return nil, err } return &winningPlayerParsed{ PlayerAddress: winningPlayer.PlayerAddress, WonCount: winningPlayer.WonCount, DateAdded: dateAdded, }, nil } func (parsed *winningPlayerParsed) stringify() (stringified *WinningPlayer) { return &WinningPlayer{ PlayerAddress: parsed.PlayerAddress, WonCount: parsed.WonCount, DateAdded: FormatDateAdded(parsed.DateAdded), } } x checkers types full_leaderboard.go View source

The functions are called repeatedly when serializing or deserializing arrays:

Copy func (leaderboard *Leaderboard) parseWinners() (winners []*winningPlayerParsed, err error) { winners = make([]*winningPlayerParsed, len(leaderboard.Winners)) var parsed *winningPlayerParsed for index, winningPlayer := range leaderboard.Winners { parsed, err = winningPlayer.parse() if err != nil { return nil, err } winners[index] = parsed } return winners, nil } func stringifyWinners(winners []*winningPlayerParsed) (stringified []*WinningPlayer) { stringified = make([]*WinningPlayer, len(winners)) for index, winner := range winners { stringified[index] = winner.stringify() } return stringified } x checkers types full_leaderboard.go View source

As you have a function to get an array of deserialized winning players, you can now add a function to sort the slice in place:

Copy func sortWinners(winners []*winningPlayerParsed) { sort.SliceStable(winners[:], func(i, j int) bool { if winners[i].WonCount > winners[j].WonCount { return true } if winners[i].WonCount < winners[j].WonCount { return false } return winners[i].DateAdded.After(winners[j].DateAdded) }) } x checkers types full_leaderboard.go View source

Test in descending order first for scores and then for the added dates. Note that there is no deserialization in this func(i, j int) bool callback. It is possible to write a one-liner inside this function but at the expense of readability.

When migrating the genesis more than one candidate will be added. Therefore, first add a helper on the deserialized elements:

Copy func AddParsedCandidatesAndSort(parsedWinners []*winningPlayerParsed, candidates []*winningPlayerParsed) (updated []*winningPlayerParsed) { updated = append(parsedWinners, candidates...) sortWinners(updated) if LeaderboardWinnerLength < len(updated) { updated = updated[:LeaderboardWinnerLength] } return updated } x checkers types full_leaderboard.go View source

Note the clipping at the leaderboard's length. Similarly, you need helpers on the leaderboard.

You can get these other helpers with a deserialization:

Copy func (leaderboard *Leaderboard) AddCandidatesAndSortAtNow(now time.Time, playerInfos []*PlayerInfo) (err error) { parsedWinners, err := leaderboard.parseWinners() if err != nil { return err } parsedPlayers := make([]*winningPlayerParsed, len(playerInfos)) for index, playerInfo := range playerInfos { parsedPlayers[index] = &winningPlayerParsed{ PlayerAddress: playerInfo.Index, WonCount: playerInfo.WonCount, DateAdded: now, } } parsedWinners = AddParsedCandidatesAndSort(parsedWinners, parsedPlayers) leaderboard.Winners = stringifyWinners(parsedWinners) return nil } func (leaderboard *Leaderboard) AddCandidatesAndSort(ctx sdk.Context, playerInfos []*PlayerInfo) (err error) { return leaderboard.AddCandidatesAndSortAtNow(GetDateAdded(ctx), playerInfos) } func (leaderboard *Leaderboard) AddCandidateAndSort(ctx sdk.Context, playerInfo PlayerInfo) (err error) { return leaderboard.AddCandidatesAndSort(ctx, []*PlayerInfo{&playerInfo}) } x checkers types full_leaderboard.go View source

This assumes that a candidate is added at the current block time or migration time. A candidate is not an existing winning player but a new one.

# v2 leaderboard handling

You have created the leaderboard helper functions. In a separate file, add one last function to the keeper to implement the leaderboard. This function makes it possible to add a candidate winner and save the updated leaderboard:

Copy func (k *Keeper) MustAddToLeaderboard(ctx sdk.Context, winnerInfo types.PlayerInfo) types.Leaderboard { leaderboard, found := k.GetLeaderboard(ctx) if !found { panic("Leaderboard not found") } err := leaderboard.AddCandidateAndSort(ctx, winnerInfo) if err != nil { panic(fmt.Sprintf(types.ErrCannotAddToLeaderboard.Error(), err.Error())) } k.SetLeaderboard(ctx, leaderboard) return leaderboard } x checkers keeper leaderboard_handler.go View source

This completes most of the leaderboard preparation. The only task left is to call your new functions at the right junctures:

  1. On a win:

    Copy if storedGame.Winner == rules.NO_PLAYER.Color { ... } else { ... winnerInfo, _ := k.Keeper.MustRegisterPlayerWin(ctx, &storedGame) k.Keeper.MustAddToLeaderboard(ctx, winnerInfo) } x checkers keeper msg_server_play_move.go View source
  2. On a forfeit:

    Copy if storedGame.MoveCount <= 1 { ... } else { ... winnerInfo, _ := k.MustRegisterPlayerForfeit(ctx, &storedGame) k.MustAddToLeaderboard(ctx, winnerInfo) } x checkers keeper end_block_server_game.go View source

Your leaderboard will now be updated and saved on an on-going basis as part of your v2 blockchain.

# v1 to v2 player information migration helper

With your v2 blockchain now fully operational, it is time to work on the issue of data migration.

First tackle the migration of player information. You will receive a giant v1 genesis when migrating which contains all the games played so far. You must go through them all and build the PlayerInfoList part of the v2 genesis.

You need to apply +1 to the relevant player stats as you go through games. For performance reasons pick a map[string]*types.PlayerInfo data type so that you can call up a player's stats by its ID in O(1).

Create a function that gets or creates a new PlayerInfo in a new file:

Copy func getOrNewPlayerInfo(infoSoFar *map[string]*types.PlayerInfo, playerIndex string) (playerInfo *types.PlayerInfo) { playerInfo, found := (*infoSoFar)[playerIndex] if !found { playerInfo = &types.PlayerInfo{ Index: playerIndex, WonCount: 0, LostCount: 0, ForfeitedCount: 0, } } return playerInfo } x checkers ... v1tov2 winning_players_builder.go View source

Then create a function that does the incrementing in the map in place:

Copy func PopulatePlayerInfosWith(infoSoFar *map[string]*types.PlayerInfo, games *[]*types.StoredGame) (err error) { var winnerAddress, loserAddress sdk.AccAddress var winnerIndex, loserIndex string var winnerInfo, loserInfo *types.PlayerInfo for _, game := range *games { winnerAddress, err = game.GetRedAddress() if err != nil { return err } loserAddress, err = game.GetBlackAddress() if err != nil { return err } if game.Winner == rules.RED_PLAYER.Color { // Already correct } else if game.Winner == rules.BLACK_PLAYER.Color { winnerAddress, loserAddress = loserAddress, winnerAddress } else { // Game is still unresolved. continue } winnerIndex = winnerAddress.String() loserIndex = loserAddress.String() winnerInfo = getOrNewPlayerInfo(infoSoFar, winnerIndex) loserInfo = getOrNewPlayerInfo(infoSoFar, loserIndex) winnerInfo.WonCount += 1 loserInfo.LostCount += 1 (*infoSoFar)[winnerIndex] = winnerInfo (*infoSoFar)[loserIndex] = loserInfo } return nil } x checkers ... v1tov2 winning_players_builder.go View source

This uses a map of PlayerIno only for performance reasons. Because the v2 genesis takes a list and not a map, you need to do a conversion. Add a helper:

Copy func PlayerInfoMapToList(all *map[string]*types.PlayerInfo) []*types.PlayerInfo { asList := make([]*types.PlayerInfo, 0, len(*all)) for _, playerInfo := range *all { asList = append(asList, playerInfo) } return asList } x checkers ... v1tov2 winning_players_builder.go View source

# v1 to v2 leaderboard migration helper

You could decide to build the leaderboard as the player stats list is being built, mimicking the regular operation of your v2 checkers blockchain. Unfortunately, that would entail a lot of array sorting for what are just intermediate player stats. Instead, build the v2 genesis leaderboard only after all player stats have been gathered.

In practice you add k new winningPlayerParsed to the array, sort it, clip it to 100, and repeat. What constitutes a good k value should be dictated by testing and performance measurements. For now use 200. Prepare a new file to encapsulate these v1-to-v2-only operations:

Copy const ( // Adjust this length to obtain the best performance over a large map. IntermediaryPlayerLength = types.LeaderboardWinnerLength * 2 ) x checkers ... v1tov2 leaderboard_builder.go View source

If your leaderboard length is 100, you would add 200 candidates for a total of 300. To accommodate such intermediate additions and sorting you can also encapsulate this in:

Copy func CreateLeaderboardForGenesis() *types.Leaderboard { return &types.Leaderboard{ Winners: make([]*types.WinningPlayer, 0, types.LeaderboardWinnerLength+IntermediaryPlayerLength), } } x checkers ... v1tov2 leaderboard_builder.go View source

Now write the function that adds k candidates, sorts that intermediate result, and clips it, before adding further candidates:

Copy func PopulateLeaderboardWith(leaderboard *types.Leaderboard, additionalPlayers *map[string]*types.PlayerInfo, now time.Time) (err error) { partialPlayers := make([]*types.PlayerInfo, IntermediaryPlayerLength) for _, playerInfo := range *additionalPlayers { partialPlayers = append(partialPlayers, playerInfo) if len(partialPlayers) >= cap(partialPlayers) { leaderboard.AddCandidatesAndSortAtNow(now, partialPlayers) partialPlayers = partialPlayers[:0] } } leaderboard.AddCandidatesAndSortAtNow(now, partialPlayers) return nil } x checkers ... v1tov2 leaderboard_builder.go View source

# A proper v1 to v2 migration

Now your full chain state migration comes down to a genesis conversion from GenesisStateV1 to your v2 GenesisState. You can write it in its own new file:

Copy func (genesisV1 GenesisStateV1) Convert(now time.Time) (genesis *types.GenesisState, err error) { playerInfos := make(map[string]*types.PlayerInfo, 1000) err = PopulatePlayerInfosWith(&playerInfos, &genesisV1.StoredGameList) if err != nil { return nil, err } leaderboard := CreateLeaderboardForGenesis() err = PopulateLeaderboardWith(leaderboard, &playerInfos, now) if err != nil { return nil, err } return &types.GenesisState{ Leaderboard: leaderboard, PlayerInfoList: PlayerInfoMapToList(&playerInfos), StoredGameList: genesisV1.StoredGameList, NextGame: genesisV1.NextGame, }, nil } x checkers ... v1tov2 genesis_converter.go View source

# Next up

Your checkers blockchain is done! It has a leaderboard, which was introduced later in production thanks to migrations.

You no doubt have many ideas about how to improve it. In particular, you could implement the missing draw mechanism, which in effect has to be accepted by both players.

It is time to move away from the checkers blockchain learning exercise, and explore another helpful tool for working with the Cosmos SDK: CosmWasm.